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Zander et al., 2011 “Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer”, Clin Cancer Res 17 (10): 3360–3367.

Objective: There is extensive research of blood-based biomarker gene expression signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for different cancers and a demand for establishing reliable tools to Identify early stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The authors showed that RNA stabilized technologies in whole blood would be more clinically applicable so evaluated whole blood gene profiling in the detection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) hospital-based controls as well as healthy individuals.

Blood was collected into PAXgene Blood RNA Tube from blood donors and then taken for blood-based gene expression profiling.After RNA isolation, microarray analysis was carried out and expression profiles were generated.

Conclusion: Data showed differential expression of several genes in whole blood of NSCLC patients and therefore indicated that gene expression profiles of whole blood allow for early detection of NSCLC. The authors presented feasibility of a diagnostic test for NSCLC based on RNA-stabilized whole blood.

Zebisch et al., 2005 “Bedside RNA stabilizing kit systems for gene expression analysis of acute leukemias: influence of non-neoplastic white blood cells”, Leukemia volume 19, pages 136–137.

Objective: The authors evaluated RNA bedside stabilizing kit systems to determine if they were an appropriate tool for expression analysis in acute leukemias.

Blood was collected in both the PAXgene Blood RNA Tube and in lithium-heparin tubes. Total RNA was isolated from the samples as along with separated blast cells and granulocytes. The samples were then subjected to C-RAF expression analysis by RT-PCR, where gene expression profiling was carried out.

Conclusion: C-RAF gene expression did not differ between cells from the PAXgene Blood RNA Tube and pure blast cells in the sample showing 98% leukemic cells. However, C-RAF expression of PAXgene Blood RNA Tube cells was already increased two-fold in the patient with 70% and more than three-fold in the patient with 20% blast cells as compared to the pure blastic fraction.

Wu et al., 2022 “Dynamic alterations of immunosenescence-related genes in older women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy: A prospective study”, Translational Oncology: Volume 25,101527 

Objective: The impact of chemotherapy on the immune system of older patients with breast cancer is unknown. A longitudinal study was performed to gain better insights into the evolution of the blood immune profile during and after chemotherapy in peripheral blood from older patients with breast cancer receiving systemic therapy, either consisting of a classical chemotherapy regimen or solely anti-hormone therapy as a control.

Blood was collected in PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes and stored at -80°C until further analysis. Leukocyte RNA was isolated and purified from samples in PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes using the PAXgene Blood RNA Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Gene expression analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples collected after surgery.

Conclusion: The gene profiling data suggest that in the long term, chemotherapy does not accelerate the decline of the immune system of older patients with breast cancer. Therefore, older age and fear of accelerated immune deterioration should not be a criterion to withhold chemotherapy from older patients if there is a potential benefit.